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Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Learning methods: How to reach your desired goal

Learning methods: How to reach your desired goal
4/ 5 stars - "Learning methods: How to reach your desired goal" You never learn, it is said. However, as it is learned, this wisdom says nothing. There are several learning methods that can be used to a...
You never learn, it is said. However, as it is learned, this wisdom says nothing. There are several learning methods that can be used to acquire knowledge, as appropriate. This is especially important in education and at the university, because the learners always receive new input over a longer period of time. The purpose of these methods is to work as extensively as possible into a topic within the time available, in order to be able to pass an exam afterwards. What learning methods are available for adults and students ...

Learning Methods Definition: What is meant by this?

Learning Methods Definition for Adults Pupils Uni Pedagogy Psychology Mindmap the best learning methods and learning techniquesLearning methods - some of which also refer to learning strategies and learning techniques - are to be understood as the use of specific work aids .

They enable the learner to acquire knowledge specifically and, above all, efficiently, so that it can be called up and used as required (in the exam or in the day-to-day work). The correct understanding of what has been learned is, among other things, the fact that what has been learned can be reproduced in one's own words .

There are different ways of collecting information , which contribute with varying degrees of success whether we retain knowledge or not. At the same time learning affects which type of learning a person is. Because, while most people are a mix of different types of learners, a learning type test can help you figure out which way to go.

For clarity, here's an overview of the different types of information gathering and the likelihood of retaining information in this way:

Just hear something: 20 percent

Just seeing something: 30 percent

To see and hear something: 50 percent

See, hear and explain something: 70 percent

See, hear, explain and do something yourself: 90 percent

Purposeful and unconscious learning

How someone learns and what he or she learns from is different. Sometimes the goal is to quickly acquire as much factual knowledge as possible in order to retrieve certain numbers, for example, if necessary. If the exam is successfully passed, however, what you have learned will quickly be forgotten.

In most cases, such exam content is knowledge that does not play a major role in everyday working life . Rather, it is used for the selection of candidates. But regardless of what the auditors are aiming for, learners want one thing above all else.

There is a widespread misconception, namely that of "much helps a lot". Therefore, a lot of dedication and diligence must automatically lead to the desired result. But just because some barely allow themselves leisure time and distraction and instead barricade and buff in their four walls, they are far from reaching their destination.

Therefore, learning methods not only include concrete tips on how to memorize something, but also give you valuable hints for the right setting. Because your insight and attitude towards learning is just as important for success as intensified memory training .

This helps you to remember something in the long run , which is always the better solution, at least when it comes to the learning content you will need more often in your working life. Applying learning methods always means that you are following a specific plan.

This is important for success, because knowledge acquisition happens in addition to the targeted intake of information even unconsciously. From psychology and pedagogy we know that the very first years of life are formative and influence information processing later.

For example, unconscious learning takes place when we learn our mother tongue - we automatically learn the grammar without being aware of the order of the phrases, nor can we directly determine their function.

Learning methods enable systematic learning

Of course, you can just start grabbing a book, reading the chapters and memorizing them - like a poem. In the last century this was still common practice, but blunt tympani usually only helps in the short term.

In most cases, you can use rhymes that allow you to open up a missing word. Nevertheless memorization is also part of different learning methods, but often much more playful.

In the following, we introduce you to different learning methods, which are different effective . There may be phases when one is needed, even though it alone is not promising. The following list is therefore not a weight for success.

Rather, you have to decide for yourself which seems appropriate for you in the respective situation:

Create a learning plan

One of the most important learning methods is that you create a learning plan . It should therefore be at the very beginning. What sounds so simple at first glance simply has the background that you gain an overview of the time that is (still) available to you.

Depending on the subject area, they divide them into different learning units and breaks. A learning plan also allows you to check at any time whether you are still in time, or whether you have needed in one place shorter or longer. In order not to be under time pressure, it is advisable to set up this curriculum so that you install generous buffers, if something goes wrong.

Read underline

The beginning of every acquisition and deepening of knowledge is often reading. Especially if you need to do some homework while studying, there may be a basic understanding of the topic. But then it is necessary to obtain further literature in order to be able to build on this knowledge.

The marking of passages is a simple and frequently practiced learning method to differentiate the important from the unimportant. However, there are studies that indicate that this method is a learning mistake because it is not very effective.

One reason for this is that many learners tend to emphasize too much and relatively indiscriminately - in the end the entire text is marked in bright colors, but in memory hardly anything can be recalled. As a rule of thumb, it is often recommended: If underline, then a maximum of three phrases per page. However, this can be too much for very small pages or extremely long sentences, so be sure to filter out the key keywords.

Create mind map

The most important key terms in turn bring you to another technique. You can make a mind map . So you must inevitably retrieve information from your memory and compile meaningful. Because in your memory, the knowledge is stored like a ball of wool. Mindmapping does justice to the meandering brain structure and helps sort out this ball of yarn, so you have a clearer idea of ​​how certain topics can be broken down.

Write summaries

According to a study by scientists John Dunlosky and Katherine Rawson of Kent State University, Elisabeth Marsh of Duke University, Mitchell J. Nathan of the University of Wisconsin, and Daniel Willingham of the University of Virginia, summarizing is about re-reading, creating Index cards, mark and remember using pictures to the least successful learning method.

At least if you put the effort and the result in relation to each other. Other studies prove that handwritten writing in particular can help to internalize what has been learned. Because you have to deal with certain content again, transform it into your language and vocabulary.

In addition, writing helps to clear the mind - your documents are a sort of outsourced memory. You can thus place sensory sections in a logical order and subdivide them into "easily digestible appetizers".

Make flashcards

Flashcards are especially useful for refreshing and repeating what you have already learned as they are a mini-summary. For example, if you need to prepare for a longer presentation, then flashcards will give you a cue for the next presentation point. Index cards as a learning method are therefore more likely to be at the end of a learning process.

Remember donkey bridges

Generations of students helped themselves in the classroom with donkey bridges . One such example is 753 - Rome hatches from the egg. This learning method is useful if something else would be difficult to remember. For the year 753 has no special meaning for people in the present, so it can hardly be linked to anything. Donkey bridges with rhymes work quite well. It is more difficult to think of oneself that fit the material to be learned.

To form a discussion round

Discussing is one of the most effective learning methods. On the one hand, you will have previously dealt with the matter via one or the other information way. On the other hand, you repeat the recorded knowledge by dealing with the subject with your own words. So much the better if you can comment on a critical theory. This allows a new look at what has been learned and leads to a differentiated picture. Especially for scientific work, this is essential because you are expected to think critically.

Simulate test

This is especially good with tests that you and your fellow students put themselves. Often, student councils at the university offer their help by resorting to earlier exams. These often include similar tasks depending on the course and semester. This, according to studies, is one of the most effective learning methods, as it allows you to query and consolidate existing knowledge. If there are no old exams, you and your colleagues can simulate the exam situation with your own question-and-answer games. This is also useful in addition to the exams because you avoid simply memorizing the solution and have difficulty finding a solution to a similar task.

Take breaks

Take a break should be a learning method? Where it seems so inactive, while learning is understood as an active approach? However, every person needs time for regeneration. On average one says that after 90 minutes a break should be taken. If, for example, you interrupt your learning phase for 15 or 30 minutes, and get some fresh air, move, you increase the chances many times over, then be more receptive.

Observe sleeping times

Even enough sleep is underestimated time and again - just before an important exam, some commit the mistake of tearing all night - and then wonder that they can not keep anything! Sleep helps to store knowledge in long-term memory. And that is exactly what you should learn, because what is in the short-term memory, quickly lost again. Getting enough sleep also helps make you feel relatively relaxed the next morning - some basic nervousness is completely normal.

Learning tips for students: The best tips and tricks

There are students who learn - contrary to all learning tips - their material only at the last minute. During the semester, you go to the lectures, read scripts or books, memorize a bit. But really learned is usually only shortly before the exam - exam anxiety included. Can you do that, but it's not the best course of action . Researchers say: This is worthwhile at short notice ...

Learning tips for students: The best tips and tricks

Contents: That's what you'll find in this article

Short-term learning is worthwhile - but does not last long

Those who take water for exams improve their grades

The forgetting curve: After a week, three quarters are forgotten

How can forgetting be stopped?

How does learning work?

4 Errors in learning - and how to avoid them

Learning enlarges the hippocampus

Learning tips for studying: The 10 best methods

50 tips for better learning

Learning tips: Make more frequent and longer breaks!

Learning while sleeping

Keep more - take more nap

Short-term learning is worthwhile - but does not last long

Pressure refueling for the head: buffing, cramming, framing - even the synonyms for learning make it clear that this is nothing that comes to you.

Learning is hard work. No wonder some people try to keep it to a minimum - with maximum learning effect . Tens of learning tips and methods have already been developed for this efficient learning, which also work well. Not all good at the same time. So you can not avoid identifying those methods that best fit your nature and learning type .

But how is it with the short-term timpani for an exam or exam : Is it worth it at all?

The psychologists Doug Rohrer and Harold Pashler have some time ago considered optimal learning curves and found surprising results in their comparative studies ( PDF ):

First, they divided their subjects into two groups and had these vocabulary buffed .

The first group puffed the fabric five times - and thus achieved a very passable result.

The second group buffed twice as hard , ten times. And indeed: With this additional effort they managed three times as good exam results.

Learning more leads to better grades. But that was not the end of the experiment:

The researchers re-tested their volunteers - after one week and three weeks later. Here again, the same result:

The students who had spent twice as long achieved significantly better results after one week.

Three weeks later, however, her advantage was gone.

Now both groups cut in about the same (bad). Or in other words: they had largely forgotten their knowledge again .

A clear argument for short-term learning before the exam or examination - also called Bulimielernen . Anyone who tries to internalize knowledge to retrieve it soon in a test , can save the effort of Permapaukens in the rule. In the long run, therefore, he does not keep anymore.

Those who take water for exams improve their grades

Those who take water for exams improve their gradesResearchers led by Chris Pawson from the University of East London and Mark Gardner from the University of Westminster have long suspected that dehydration (also known as dehydration) is degrading academic achievement. So, the performance of 447 students recorded in different exams - depending on whether they took the exams or not.

Result: To take water with the exams, the exam score improved significantly. But please pay attention to the wording: In fact, the scientists registered only the test results and whether students water had here . They did not check if and how much water the students drank during the exam. "Our results suggest that adding water to the tests is enough to improve their scores," says study leader Chris Pawson. However, fair enough to say, this is a conspicuous correlation, not causality.

As proven, however, that drinking helps to reduce stress and stimulate the metabolism and thus to keep the gray cells supple.

The forgetting curve: After a week, three quarters are forgotten

Forgetting curve-to-EbbinghausThe whole thing has something to do with the so-called Ebbinghaus forgetting curve (see chart). Do not you know? Maybe just forget ...

This is precisely what the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus found out in his self- experiments:

After about 20 minutes , he had already forgotten what he had learned to 40 percent.

After one hour , the half-life of knowledge dropped to 45 percent.

At most, after one day , he still remembered a third (34 percent).

After just six days , memory has shrunk to a whopping 23 percent - in the long run, we only keep 15 percent of the learned. That's a pity.

How can forgetting be stopped?

Every day, our brain is flooded with a plethora of information. If we tried to remember all the information, our brains would burn out like a fuse. At the same time, forgetting is essential to our survival and therefore an integral part of our life and learning.

So that our upper room does not run hot, 100 billion nerve cells process every few seconds thousands of impulses and filter new information: Important is permanently stored and unimportant discarded immediately.

When we speak of memory , we mean the ability to organize, store and retrieve information. It is a complex network of different parts of our brain. If we remember something, a connection between different nerves is established. This connection is crucial so that we can learn something new.

How does learning work?

When we retrieve a stored information, it is transmitted as a stimulus from one nerve end to the other. For the learning process and the memory training , it is then decisive how well the stimulus transmission works:

In case of a strong stimulus , this is not only passed on, but the receiving nerve reacts the next time more strongly to a weaker stimulus. The communication of both nerves gets faster, and we can remember this information more easily.

However, if the stimulus is too weak from the start , the receiving nerve will not react the next time. This connection is gossamer, and we have problems recalling the information in question.

So that the learning works well and we can quickly remember what we have learned, we need well-functioning nerve connections. With each new incoming information, the connections between our nerves are recombined. Information from old connections is then no longer available, they are practically overwritten.

You can imagine this process as road works : a road that is broken and not very busy is replaced by a new one. Only the new road leads to a very different place.

Learning is far from the most beautiful thing in the world, but rather a necessary evil. But there are also mistakes that you should avoid ...

4 Errors in learning - and how to avoid them

The Google effect

We do not remember certain information better if we know that it is available online and that we can look it up at any time.

To avoid this error: Try to remember the information itself, not just the location where it can be found. For example, in a statistics exam, knowing the formula you need on page 94 below, if you do not know the formula yourself, will help you a little.

The Zeigarnik effect

We forget a little faster when it comes to completed processes. This was noticed by Russian psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik as she sat in a restaurant watching the waiters pick up the orders. She found out that waiters could better remember those orders that were still open.

How to avoid this mistake: Most students only study for the exam date. After the exam, the event is completed for you and the knowledge is no longer important. This leads to the fact that the already learned knowledge is forgotten. Try to realize that you will continue to need and use this knowledge.


It is difficult for us to classify and keep things that do not fit into our world view. We want a view of the world that is as consistent as possible. Because of this, our brain tends to dispel contradictions. This was discovered by the British psychologist Frederic Bartlett when he read a story about Indians to British test subjects. All references to ghosts and supernatural phenomena disappeared from the retellings of the subjects.

To avoid this mistake: It is enough to be aware of this fact. Self-critically deal with the interpretation and reproduction of information. Always keep in mind that your point of view is influenced by your culture.

Negative emotions

It is now scientifically proven that negative memories fade faster than positive ones. Psychologists assume that this happens to protect ourselves.

How To Avoid This Mistake: If you are learning for an important exam, you will start with a positive attitude. For example, it is much harder for us to memorize complex formulas by telling ourselves that business mathematics is the worst subject at the university and that the exam will go awry anyway.

To avoid these mistakes is still no guarantee that you will become the next memory world champion. But you help at least in the preparation for the next exam.

Learning enlarges the hippocampus

Learning enlarges the hippocampusBrain researcher Eleanor Maguire, from University College London, examined the changes in the brain of London taxi driver applicants . You have to know that London is one of the largest and probably the most complicated cities in Europe. If you want to drive a taxi, you have to memorize a good 25,000 roads. It will not be done in a few weeks. Some aspirants buff four years for it.

Well, Eleanor Maguire had the chance to brain-scan the brains of her 79 subjects (and 31 controls) for an extended period of time. Lo and behold: who passed the taxi driver's test at the end, had a significantly enlarged hippocampus - in the participants of the control group and the failed the volume, however, remained the same.

This can be said according to the concluded brain researcher :

Learning is still possible in old age.And those who learn - especially difficult things - improve their ability to continue learning in the future.

However, not everyone succeeds (as the failed show). A guarantee to learn for life does not exist.

Learning tips for studying: The 10 best methods

Surprisingly, very few students - and even fewer employees - actively use methods and learning techniques . Granted, many approaches are easy to explain, but need a little practice for optimal implementation.

However, this investment in time and energy is worth it, as soon as you have the right method for you master the , you can tap new content quickly and easily, understand and remember. Not only do you save time, you also save your nerves and have more energy left over for other activities.

We recommend these learning tips:

Alphabet Method

In the Alphabet method, the letters of the alphabet serve as ordering characteristics. Each letter is assigned an image, for the letter B, for example, a book. For example, if you need to remember the notion of relativity theory, you might think of Albert Einstein reading in a book. Such pictures are easy to memorize.

memory Palace

You have a good imagination? Then this concept could be optimal for you. The principle works as follows: From the contents to be learned construct a building mentally. The basic content is the foundation, the key points can be mainstays, and details close your Thought Palace as a roof. If you deliberately let this building emerge and come back several times, you will soon have internalized the contents.

index cards

This learning method is already familiar to many people in the first years of school. The classic approach is to write a term on the front and its definition on the back of the card. For example, a file box may be divided into three sections. At the top are all the contents that are yet to be learned. The second section contains content that you must repeat, and the third contains the terms that you already know and only reviews every few weeks.


Those who can not do much with rather optically oriented learning methods are better served with lists . Through different levels, information can be structured simply and clearly. This structure, in turn, can help to easily capture content and understand interactions. For example, to simplify complex content, lists are great. The simplest variant is the well-known to-do list .

Method of loci

This method is said to have its roots in ancient Greece. The principle is based on the linking of places and objects with learning content. For example, when preparing a lecture, you should choose a route that you either walk away or follow with your gaze. You then assign specific content to each point of this route. So you can retrieve this point by point and save the contents so.

Mind mapping

If you are more creative, the well-known mindmap technique is great for preparing content and depicting relationships. Branches with further information and individual aspects depart from the central topic or keyword. The sub-points can form any number of new branches. From a certain complexity, however, a mind map becomes confusing, even electronic solutions can only partially help.


American educator Francis Robinson has come up with the idea of ​​the SQR3 as an elaborate yet effective way to work on complex scientific texts. To begin, read only the table of contents and the headings (Survey). Then, you hypothesize what the text might be about and write down any questions that you want to have an answer to after reading them (Question). The third phase consists of reading the text, but you should be thorough and work with tags and comments (Read). Then, summarize the text section by section (Recite). Finally, you textualize the text (Review).


One of the most basic learning tips ever: focus on texts and new content to understand the context and statements. Ignore all the details and numbers first, and really focus only on principles and structures. Details are then the icing on the cake that completes your understanding.


If you have a vivid imagination, you should also use it to learn new content. Associate content with images and imagine the described situations and statements as vividly as possible. Work consciously with the most vivid images possible and use, for example, organizational charts and mind maps to get the contents - literally - in front of your eyes.


The best known of all learning methods: Repeat the content you want to learn until you can play it back safely. The criticism of this method is obvious: dull repetition can work with pure factual knowledge, but is time consuming and not very effective. However, repetition may be useful in combination with or as an adjunct to other learning methods.

50 tips for better learning

50 tips for better learningWe have summarized even more practical learning tips in our free guide "50 Tips for Better Learning". You can download it HERE as PDF .

Learning tips: Make more frequent and longer breaks!

Now all of these pressure refueling has two major drawbacks: it tires a lot and makes it even less fun. But there is a - also scientifically guaranteed solution: make in between more breaks!

No kidding: When, for example, the scientists Soren Ashley and Joel Pearson from the University of New South Wales in Sydney studied successful learning strategies, you could prove that practicing too much (as with the law of diminishing returns) results in progressively smaller learning progress .

Or to put it in a positive way: Learning success sets in faster if you make breaks in between . The best way to do this regularly: When learning new skills, new connections are created in the brain, in technical jargon these are also called neuronal plasticity .

In order to acquire skills long-term, these changes in the brain but must be deepened and consolidated. This is only possible through the transfer from short-term to long-term memory - for example through regular, longer breaks. "If the information and neural changes are not consolidated appropriately, the learning progress will only be noticeable in the short term or will not even come to an end," says Soren Ashley.

This was also confirmed in Rohrer's and Pashler's studies: When they repeated their experiments, they also took breaks between the learning phases - from five minutes to two weeks. Result: Those who took a day off wrote the best tests if they took place ten days later. But if you were examined six months later, the optimal learning break already lasted one month.

The quintessence of it:

Anyone who tries to incorporate a complex substance in a short time will perhaps pass the exam well, but will retain little in the long term.

If you want to keep the knowledge afterwards (and be able to retrieve it in the later job), you should also learn during the semester, keep pausing and let the stuff sink .

And the more we learn (in the long term), the longer the breaks should be .

The ideal learning strategy would therefore be: reading books intensively, learning, laying aside, going on vacation and then, just before the exam, shedding knowledge into short-term memory again.

Learning while sleeping

Learning while sleepingIt's true: we learn in our sleep . And anyone who goes to bed immediately after buffing retains more. To this realization renowned sleep researcher Jessica Payne from the University of Notre Dame has already come . Not while asleep, but in experiments with a total of 207 students learning ...

The first had to buff vigorously - all day, between 9 and 21 clock. After that, they had to pass tests: half an hour after learning, twelve hours later, and another 24 hours later. The trick, however, was that some of the subjects could get a good night's sleep between the first immediate test and the second. And indeed, they did much better in the tests - even better than those who stayed awake for a whole day.

Keep more - take more nap

A new study goes even further: Those who study or learn large quantities should treat themselves to more (not longer) naps (so-called power raps ) in between. The French study by Stephanie Mazza of the University of Lyon concludes that regular short sleep helps us to process and remember information more effectively - even six months after we have learned something. Above all, the current study shows the positive influence of short naps between two learning units . On top of that reduce the power nap in between the repetition loops - vulgo the "cramming" of about vocabulary.
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Monday, January 7, 2019

4/ 5 stars - " " Most puppies can eat any of various over the counter foods and flourish. Canine foods that take after AAFCO (Association of American Feed ...
Most puppies can eat any of various over the counter foods and flourish. Canine foods that take after AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control Officials) directions and are named as being healthfully complete and adjusted will address the issues of "typical" pets… as long as they are sound.

dogs food

Prescription Dog Food – When is it a Good Idea?

Prescription Dog Food – When is it a Good Idea?

Be that as it may, when infection strikes, over the counter foods may never again be a canine's best alternative. Pet food makers create an extensive variety of what are frequently called prescription diet. These foods are particularly intended to meet the novel needs of debilitated or harmed pets.

Here's a testing of probably the most normally suggested prescription diets for dogs.

Foods for Kidney Failure 

Puppies experiencing kidney disappointment need to eat a food that contains direct measures of protein that is of the most elevated conceivable quality to diminish the arrangement of lethal metabolites and bolster muscle upkeep. Decreased phosphorous and sodium levels are likewise imperative.

Nourishments for Food Allergy/Intolerance 

Mutts with a sensitivity or bigotry to specific fixings regularly utilized as a part of pet sustenance will encounter alleviation from their side effects when they eat a suitable solution nourishment. Choices incorporate novel protein definitions (e.g., venison and green pea) or hydrolyzed counts calories.

Sustenances for Gastrointestinal Conditions 

Some gastrointestinal issue can be made do with a very edible eating regimen. These are frequently low in fiber and fat. Different conditions enhance when canines eat high fiber nourishments. Picking the privilege gastrointestinal eating routine relies upon what particular ailment a pooch has been determined to have and here and there a touch of experimentation.

Nourishments for Joint Disease 

Nourishments that are enhanced with omega 3 unsaturated fats, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and cancer prevention agents can advance joint wellbeing. These sustenances ought to likewise not be so calorie rich as to empower weight pick up.

Sustenances for Weight Loss/Maintenance 

A few puppies get more fit immediately when sustained a high fiber consume less calories. The fiber adds mass to the sustenance, influencing pooches to feel full without including calories. In any case, different puppies improve the situation when they eat a high protein/low sugar eat less carbs. The best way to know which will work best for you and your puppy is to attempt each and screen the outcomes.

Nourishments for Brain Changes Associated with Aging 

Nourishments with large amounts of omega 3 unsaturated fats and cancer prevention agents can help ensure the cerebrum against the harm caused by free radicals and improve a more seasoned puppy's psychological capacities.

Nourishments for Lower Urinary Tract Disease 

Pooches who have a background marked by urinary gems and stones are at high hazard for repeat. Sustaining them a nourishment that advances the development of weaken pee (canned is ideal) and an ideal urinary pH and contains decreased measures of the substances that frame gems and stones can help with anticipation.

Sustenances are likewise accessible that can help puppies with diabetes mellitus, coronary illness, malignancy, liver infection, skin issues, endless dental sickness, and recuperation from a mishap, disease or surgery. Converse with your veterinarian about whether a medicine eating routine may be in your pet's best advantages.
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Monday, December 31, 2018

Provocation: How to respond appropriately

Provocation: How to respond appropriately
4/ 5 stars - "Provocation: How to respond appropriately" Some people use them deliberately, others are not aware of their behavior: there is talk of provocation . A provocation aims to evoke a ce...
Some people use them deliberately, others are not aware of their behavior: there is talk of provocation . A provocation aims to evoke a certain behavior in the other person - usually not to his delight. What to do if the teammate provokes you? You will always come across such situations. Partly hides behind a test to better assess your personality. In other cases, unfair motives may play a role. For those who provoke themselves can possibly be carried away by unfavorable reactions that can have a detrimental effect on their own image. How to adequately deal with provocations ...

Provocation: How to respond appropriately

Provocation Meaning: stimulating at all costs?

Provocation Examples Definition Handling as a strategy The term provocation was borrowed from Latin by provocare and means something like "provoke, challenge". What is described is a behavior that is intended to cause opponents to let themselves be carried away to thoughtless actions by breaches of rules and other transgressions such as insults.

Synonym for provocation is the speech of:








declaration of war




Frequently, a provocation causes the opponent a hurt or that he feels injured in his honor . The motives of the provocateur may be different.

In addition to the desire to induce the provoked as rule violations, the provocation may spring from the desire for differentiation from others.


This motive may, for example, underlie an illegal car race. Someone who feels in his nature rather insecure and inferior , challenges another car driver. He does this by letting his engine roar at the still red light. So he signals how much horsepower his car has and that he is willing to use the full power of his car when jumping over to green, in order to reach the imagined goal in each case first.

In order to keep this in mind, a provocation always needs two people involved: one who provokes and one who gets provoked. These explanations of provocation all presuppose that the provocative pursues a little benevolent intention .

Be Provoked: avoid escalations

In addition, there are cases in which difficult, easily irritable personalities something as provocation , but completely overreact. For example, the phrase "What do you stupid so stupid ?!" is called, which is often heard in schoolyards under half star, but also beyond.

Such situations are a chapter in itself, because these people just looking for a reason to purposely misunderstand and violence to exercise to.

In some occupations, workers are at particular risk of coming into contact with such groups. For example, who ...

Has access to cash, valuable goods or opiates,

exercises control and inspection duties on the basis of official authorization,

in counseling centers and offices such as the Jobcenter works,

works in social institutions or prisons and has to do with addicts, mentally disturbed or otherwise behaviorally sensitive,

works on publicly accessible individual workplaces or directly in the private rooms of the customer.

What happens during a provocation? Emotions obscure the mind, which is overridden and the provoked is inclined to follow the first impulse. This is on the one hand human, on the other hand dangerous : Not always it remains with verbal failures and who reacts wrongly, is injured in the worst case or makes itself punishable.

Vulnerable occupational groups usually complete de-escalation training , such as policemen or security workers. That is, they know all the tricks of how difficult groups of people try to provoke them and have learned to deal with them properly.

Tips for dealing with provocations

Not every provocation you give in has to put you in jail with one foot. But you should be aware of the nature of provocation : another person tries to exercise control over you through their behavior. Nobody but you should have control over you - unless you give it voluntarily.

There are some tips on how to behave when someone provokes you. However, against the background of some undesirable side effects, they are meant to be less than a sequence of steps. Every provocation can look different, there is no universal recipe.

For verbal attacks - as they are likely to occur in the office environment - something else is in demand than if you run the risk that the provocateur becomes fierce. It is therefore up to you to choose the appropriate remedy in case of provocation:

Stay calm.

The most important tip is also the hardest. How am I supposed to stay calm when I'm 180? The trick is not to react, at least not immediately, but if anything, then delayed. In most cases this will not be pleasant to your opponent, because he usually wants you to get carried away by the affect. Take a deep breath and count to ten at the same time.

Get out of the situation

Psychologists call this an exit strategy. As in any conflict, in a provocation you have the ability to change, accept, or leave. This also includes not engaging in any discussion, but ending the conversation as politely as possible: "It seems to me that we have left the factual level. Under these conditions, I'm not ready to discuss the topic further. "

Reflect the situation

Because that gives you the much needed time to get a picture of the situation. However, the moment you logically think through it, you usually get on the brink of the provocateur. They realize that the supposedly obvious action is not good advice and so have the chance to decide against it.

Use your body language

The posture often signals something of a person's self-image . Anyone who walks straight through the halls, standing upright in the room or sitting in the chair and looking openly at one's counterpart, seems far more self-confident than someone who has sunk into himself and / or can not look people in the eye.

Rate the provocation

See if the colleague is right about what he said about you? Some unfortunate criticisms may not be a provocation, but put your finger in a wound. Not everyone can criticize constructively . In this case, in a quiet minute you should point out to colleagues that the way was wrong. Likewise, you should make it clear that you have understood the point of criticism in itself and will heed.

Return the ball

For advanced players, verbal countering is required, depending on the circumstances, and the necessary repartee can be trained. If your colleague wants to show you clearly and, for example, unjustifiably attacks you in a meeting, you have to react. For such situations, you should prepare some reactions in advance:

Ask your counterpart directly what he wants to do with this provocation. So you show that you see through him and his game, but are not willing to play along.

Use irony to point out your inappropriate behavior or incorrect information: Thank you for letting us share your opinion. Or: I am happy to explain the facts again in peace.

Interpreting something deliberately wrong, for example, if someone sounds that a thing can never work so: Since you are absolutely right, it does not work. My idea is therefore to tackle the matter as follows ...
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Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Arrogance: Tips for dealing with arrogant persons

Arrogance: Tips for dealing with arrogant persons
4/ 5 stars - "Arrogance: Tips for dealing with arrogant persons" The line between healthy self-confidence and arrogance is narrow. To know that you are good, that your own idea is right and better than the...
The line between healthy self-confidence and arrogance is narrow. To know that you are good, that your own idea is right and better than the ideas of others, is the one thing. To let others feel that, something else. If arrogance then becomes even more powerful (for example with executives), it quickly becomes unbearable. Such people do not mince words, rumble, offend and hurt, and cleanse every thought of the record that is not theirs. Can not be good, was not mine! The complacent rests in itself like in a Faraday cage. No question, it is not healthy. Especially for the environment. But how do you deal with arrogant people? We have some ideas ..

Arrogance: what is meant by that?
Arrogance: what is meant by that?The arrogance can have many faces and names. Overbearing people are often credited with having them





Although a medical definition is lacking, because the arrogance - unlike the narcissism - does not belong to the classical personality disorders (mental illnesses), arrogant people often show similar characteristics :

They believe they have a monopoly on the truth.
They know everything better.
They consider themselves the crown of creation.
They are convinced that no one does better work than themselves.
They constantly overestimate themselves and their abilities.
They appear pejorative and disparaging to their fellow human beings.
They are immune to advice and criticism.
They are overly self-confident.
They demonstrate their superiority at every opportunity.

You could also say that arrogant people have the ability to miniaturize - in their vicinity you feel smaller than you are.

However, this arrogance is an extremely shaky construct . He always remains dependent on others and needs their mirrors to be able to stand out and lift. In other words, the arrogant is in fact dependent on those who are in his eyes smaller or worse to feel superior.

Where does the arrogance come from?
What causes arrogance, why some of their talents literally go to their heads - that's not always very clear.

Because - and this is a crucial difference to the fool - the arrogant can really do something and often has an above-average intelligence . In other words, he or she has a good reason to be overbearing.

Why such people then feel the need to make others small, therefore indicates rather high insecurity or a veritable profile neurosis .

The strong self-confidence is often just a facade. Behind it usually hides a still immature and unstable character . Because these people are unaware of themselves , doubt their strengths and talents, or have an unfulfilled desire for affirmation and admiration, they force applause and recognition by putting themselves on the pedestal. Motto: Look, I'm better than you - now admire me for it!

One could also say, self-image and foreign image gape with these people far apart. Behind them is often the compulsive fear of being under-rated, not getting the attention and recognition you deserve.

Arrogance arrogance profile neurosis bourgeois cartoon
The pursuit of others' attention can also be demonstrated by the fact that those concerned must always emphasize what they have done or already achieved ( my car, my house, my boat, ... ).

Here, however, pure despair usually reveals itself : the craving for validity ultimately remains unsatisfied. The arrogant may feel in the short term superior - but he also feels that this is not a real admiration, but at most a self-constructed triumph. Artificial ascent through humiliation.

And people will not be more sympathetic. A downward spiral arises: The dose must be constantly increased to satisfy. At the same time, the person experiences more and more rejection. Or realizes that he or she is not as special as he is supposed to be and not really capable of really big things. This way, self-image and external image are permanently removed from each other.

3 clues that you become arrogant
3 clues that you become arrogantIf you're wondering how you affect others or whether you're arrogant, there are three strong signs that you're at least on the way to being considered arrogant and patronizing by others:

About hearing
They are not listening properly anymore. Other opinions ignore or iron you and insist on your point of view. And of course, only your point of view is the only correct one.

That you are wrong, you exclude as well as the possibility of making mistakes. In fact, you do not gain more respect with this flawless attitude - you lose it.

With people below your level, you do not give up anymore. You simply do not have the time. The desire anyway. That ability and knowledge commit as well as prosperity - the idea does not even come to you.

Is arrogance associated with power?
No question, power favors arrogance. After all, it's a kind of affirmation that you've made it to something. But there is no causality : power does not automatically make you presumptuous.

However, certain leadership positions reinforce an already existing personality trait. In the beginning, it is certainly not wrong for executives to act with the necessary self-assurance and to manage projects without hesitation. In contrast to people with excessive need for harmony , this can even appeal to employees and other supervisors. But only until self-assurance becomes arrogance.

Managers are often under great pressure and reproaches . To avoid being too close to them, they often benefit from a thick coat and a pronounced self-esteem . If necessary, but only just an attached, constructed. People who exaggerate their characteristics are in danger of losing their arrogance and arrogance.

But it is also true that power corrupts . Those who feel powerful, like to take more liberties - simply because he or she can. Or rather: Believes you can afford it.

So many career achievements can reinforce the sense of superiority over others. And those who feel superior often show less empathy and empathy . This is meanwhile indicated by numerous studies.

A simple equation seems to apply: the more arrogance, the greater the emotional distance . Not infrequently, this culminates in noticeable wickedness, bossing and the desire to torture others. But that is no longer arrogance, but wickedness.

One of the most famous proofs of this thesis is the so-called Stanford Prison experiment ...

The Stanford Prison Experiment
The Stanford Prison ExperimentThis experiment was conducted in 1971 by American social psychologist Philip Zimbardo. Out of 70 students, he selected 24 that he thought were the most average and randomly assigned them to guards and prisoners .

The prisoners had to wait in jail cells in the basement of the institute, which had previously been specially equipped with bars, while the guards were to do their work. However, the guards did not manage well with their newly gained power .

Within a few days, the formerly average students turned into true sadists and tortured the prisoners. This turned out to be such that the experiment, originally scheduled for 14 days, had to be stopped after six days. Some of the prisoners included extreme signs of mental stress and first signs of developing depression .

Am I presumptuous? That depends also on the opposite
Not every person is overbearing, whom others attribute to this attribute. Many extraordinary and highly talented people are regularly spurned as arrogant just because they are beyond mediocrity.

As the saying goes: cynical looks like arrogance only from below .

Self-confidence , self-love and mental strength are not bad, on the contrary: they are a key to success.

And not always behind an arrogant appearance calculation and calculation. Some only have a knowledge advantage or genius, but he expresses it in the worst possible way and thus offends his colleagues.

In addition, especially people with low self-esteem tend to dismiss a certain behavior as presumptuous. Conversely, employees with likewise pronounced self-confidence perceive a sovereign person as merely assertive - there is no talk of arrogance.

Psychologists therefore distinguish between the authentic and therefore positive manifestations of self-awareness on the one hand, and the negative and presumptuous ones on the other. Thus, an essential feature of arrogance is the lack of self-reflection . This leads to a distorted perception of reality.

How do I deal with arrogant colleagues?
With all understanding of the causes and triggers for arrogance - annoying is of course still, when you share the occupation or the office with such a person. So the question arises, how you should deal with arrogant colleagues (or bosses). In fact, there are a few options ...

Accept it.
Overbearing people are characterized not least by advice res judicata . An open conversation is rarely possible with them. It would also be a waste of your life to convince them that you are quite ordinary. Make it clear that the arrogant posturing has nothing to do with your person. The guy opposite can not help but needs it to make himself feel better. Sometimes you have to treat yourself.

Do not contradict.
How does someone react to suggestions for improvement that is firmly convinced that they are doing the best work in the world? Exactly, not exactly pleased or even open. Contradiction can save you from these people. In the best case, you can not do anything with it; in the worst case, you can conjure up a conflict . Clever acts, who makes his own (better) idea look as if it is the result of the intellectual superiority of the other: "Your great idea brings me just now that we also ..."

Stay factual.
If it does not work out and you really want to say (or criticize) something, then do not get involved in long discussions. An overbearing person will only listen to you conditionally anyway. Please do not make any reproaches, but formulate during the conversation so-called first-person messages - garnished with understanding and a dash of praise. Use the feedback rules calmly .

If everything does not help, avoid the colleague. As a rule, such people sooner or later stumble over their own bad habits. Meanwhile, they prove greatness and sovereignty . Always defend arrogance with kindness, avoid heavy attacks and take the wind out of the sails of the guy. Remember: often behind his behavior is just insecurity and a puny personality.

Do a book.
Of course you do not have to put up with everything. If arrogance becomes unbearable, you should accurately document insults, condescension, and false accusations . If it comes later to an open confrontation, you have evidence in hand.
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